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Random Thoughts on Instructional Design

Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 1 of 7

I was intrigued by Churchs’ posting on the “Digital Taxonomy” and wanted to share it with the faculty at the University of Alaska – but before I could do that I need to make some modifications. So I spent part of the summer break modifying his work to meet the needs of the faculty at my institution. The result of my modifications are a 7 part series.

The following is the 1st installment of the “Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies” series. Additional installments will be posted each week for the next six weeks.

Hope you find the materials useful.


Part 1

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom defined three domains of learning: Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive. The goal of the domains, termed Bloom’s Taxonomy, was to create a more holistic approach to designing learning. Anderson & Krathwohl revised Bloom’s original in 2001 to make it more relevant to newer educational theories by combining both the cognitive process and knowledge dimensions. Churches’ Digital Taxonomy took the revision a step further in 2008 by adding multimedia technology to the taxonomy and the associated learning opportunities that emerge from the integration of web 2.0 technologies into the learning environment.

The wisdom with which educational leaders in this video explicate the urgency of giving teachers the tools to connect with 21C learning and their students is poignant in this video.

This resource was designed as a companion to the 2001 revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and Churches’ 2008 Digital Taxonomy. Focusing on the Cognitive domain, this document provides a comparison of the three aforementioned versions of Bloom’s Taxonomy as well as an extensive, though certainly not exhaustive, list of Web 2.0 resources that could be incorporated into educational settings to help meet the objectives set out in the course and for the students.

The following is a graphical representation of Bloom’s Taxonomy overlaid with cognitive elements as well as methods required for web 2.0 technologies.

Blooms digital taxanomony

Blooms dogital taxanomony

Note: Collaboration is included as a separate element because it is often addressed/discussed independent of the mechanisms used to collaborate. While collaboration is not an integral part of the learning process for the individual, you doing so often enhances learning. It is also important to note that collaboration is a skill of increasing importance in the business environment and gaining importance in the learning process.


Composed of six sections, one for each of the skills within the cognitive domain, each section starts with a domain summary for each of the three versions of the taxonomies. Each summary section is followed by a set of tools and techniques that can be incorporated in both online environments and classroom settings to address the digital taxonomies.

While this information is presented in a linear fashion, the learning process can be initiated at any point; however, the lower taxonomic levels should be encompassed within the scaffolding of learning task.

Next week a closer look at the Remembering domain.

Contributing Authors: JoAnn Gonzalez-Major & Amanda Albright

One comment on “Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 1 of 7

  1. Pingback: Vermont Educator 2.0 Harwood Edu20 Course

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This entry was posted on August 8, 2008 by in Instructional Design, Instructional Technology and tagged , , .

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