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Random Thoughts on Instructional Design

Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 2 of 7

Remembering (knowledge)

1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy


The remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the recall of appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain.

Recall or reorganization of specific information – element in growth of knowledge and information.

Skills Demonstrated

Observation and recall of information; knowledge of dates, events, places; knowledge of major ideas; mastery of subject matter

Objective Examples

Know common terms, know specific facts, know methods and procedures, know basic concepts, know principles

Listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, locating, favorating, searching, googling

Possible Products

Quiz, definition, fact, worksheet, test, label, list, workbook, reproduction, diagrams

Web bookmark list, social networking site, mind map, web page, electronic flash cards, social bookmarking, search engine results page

Bullet pointing – This is analogous with listing but in a digital format.


Bookmarking or favorating – this is where the students mark for later use web sites, resources and files. Students can then organize these.


Highlighting – This is a key element of most productivity suites, encouraging students to pick out and highlight key words and phrases is a techniques for recall.


Searching or “googling” – Search engines are now key elements of students’ research. At its simplest for (here) student are just entering a key word or phrase into the basic entry pane of the search engine.


Social networking – this is where people develop networks of friends and associates. It forges and creates links between different people. Like social bookmarks (see below) a social network can form a key element of collaborating and networking


Social bookmarking – this is an online version of local bookmarking or favorites, It is more advanced because you can draw on others bookmarks and tags. While higher order thinking skills like, collaborating and sharing, can and do make use of these skills, this is its simplest form – a simple list of sites saved to an online format rather than locally to the machine.

Free Tools
  • AltaVista, Ask, Google, Librarians’ Internet Index, Infomine, Resources Discovery Network and others for basic searches
  • Delicious, Furl and others for bookmarking, favorating, and social bookmarking,
  • Hot Potatoes -software that aids instructors and learners with the development of electronic crosswords, gap-fills, cloze tests, matching, multiple choice and jumbled exercises.
  • Tools
    like Facebook, MySpace, Digg, and Bebo for social network opportunities.
  • Mind
    mapping tools like VUE (Visual Understanding Environment), MindMeister, Mindomo, and Bubbl to develop lists, and complete labeling
    exercises and outlines.
Other Tools
  • Cell phones and instant messaging tools for small action research projects
  • Word processors to create bookmark lists
  • Pdf viewers and word processors to highlight key materials in papers and articles
  • Inspiration (free 30-day trial)
  • Smart ideas (free 30 day trial)

Next week a closer look at the Understanding domain.

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This entry was posted on August 15, 2008 by in Instructional Design and tagged , , , .

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