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Random Thoughts on Instructional Design

Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 3 of 7

Understanding (comprehension)

1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy


ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (i.e., words to numbers); by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing); and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects).

Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphics messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. Understand uses and implications of terms, facts, methods, procedures, concepts

Skills Demonstrated

Understanding information, grasp meaning; translate knowledge into new context; interpret facts, compare, contrast; order, group, infer causes; predict consequences

Compare, demonstrate, differentiate, outline, group, fill in the blank questions

Objective Examples

Understand facts and principles, interpret verbal material, interpret charts and graphs, translate verbal material to mathematical formulas, estimate the future consequences implied in data, justify methods and procedures

Make a list of the main events of a story, make a timeline of events, make a facts chart, write a list of information on a specific topic, use a set of symbols and graphics to draw a condition, method, or sequence

Create an interactive timeline, develop a concept map of the main ideas of a story, create & execute a search strategy of a libraries electronic holdings, research a given topic on the internet and assess the findings

Possible Products

Recitation, summary, collection, explanation, show and tell, example, quiz, list, label, outline

blog journal, categorized list of electronic resources, search strategy results, annotated list of links, wiki

Advanced and Boolean Searching – This is a progression from the Remembering domain. Students require a greater depth of understanding to be able to create, modify and refine searches to suit their search needs. This type of search requires an understanding of the keywords, Boolean logic, advanced search features, structuring and refining searches and suitable search engine.


Blog Journaling – One of the simplest uses for a blog is where
a learner simply “talks” “writes” or “types” a daily or task specific journal. This type of assignment can show a basic understanding of content. Blogs can also develop higher level thinking skills when used for discussion and collaboration.


Categorizing & Tagging – digital classification – organizing and classify files, web sites and materials using folders, using and other similar tools beyond simple bookmarking. This can be organizing, structuring and attributing online data, meta-tagging web pages etc. The assumption is that students must be able understand the content of the pages to be able to tag and categorize it properly.


Subscribing – Subscription takes bookmarking in its various forms and simple reading one level further. The act of subscription by itself does not show or develop understanding but often the process of reading and revisiting the subscribe feeds leads to greater understanding.


Tagging, commenting and annotating – a variety of tools exist that allow learners to comment and annotate on web pages, pdf files and other documents. Learners will develop understanding by simply commenting on the pages. This type of activity is analogous with writing notes on hand outs, but is potentially more powerful as they can link and index these.


Free Tools
  • Audacity for recording and editing explanations for show-and-tell type
  • Blogger – Google resource that allow the user to set up an unlimited number of hosted blogs for free. The resources is easy to use and has a built in tutorials.
  • Bluepulse – mobile social networking tool that works on most internet-enabled phones.
  • Bebo – product allows users
    to share photos with music, and blogs, and draw on members’ White Boards.
  • Bloglines – A web-based personal news aggregator that allows learners to subscribe to blogs, email groups, and web sites then publish the resources that they collect on their own blogs.
  • Classroom blogmiester – free blogging tool developed specifically for classroom use.
  • Collectives – provides private and public group sites for sharing and staying connected. (If you want custom branding and permission controls on the site it will cost $9.00 per month.)
  • Delicious – social bookmarking manager that learners can use to search for blog and web site postings associated with a given topic(s) and then share the resources with others.
  • Edublogs – free blog hosting service based on WordPress. Site is dedicated to offering blogs for faculty and students. Site contains a number of teaching techniques for integrating blogs into the learning environment, and they offer classroom and campus wide solutions.
  • Facebook – online social networking tool.
  • Google Groups – learners can join active groups, or set up free public or private groups where they can chat, exchange emails and share
  • Google Reader – another web-bases personal news
  • Miaplaza – site allows for private communities and allows text, photos, and videos to be shared through discussion forums, chats, and email.
  • MySpaceAn international site that offers email, a forum, communities, videos and weblog space.
  • Ning – users with no programming experience can create custom social web sites.
  • WordPress – the software for this blog tool can be downloaded for free and hosted on your own server or hosting service at , or you can free hosted blog at
  • Yahoo Groups – learners can join existing groups,create new groups, share resources, set up group calendars and chat.
  • Zotero – a free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help users collect, manage, and cite research sources.
  • Mind mapping tools like VUE (Visual Understanding Environment), MindMeister, Mindomo, and Bubbl to develop lists, and complete labeling exercises and outlines.
  • Using tools like MemoryLifter, Virtual Flashcards, StudyMe (generates flashcards that can be used on cell phones), and Quiz
    to aide in memorization, test preparation and peer-to-peer support activities.
  • Wiki tools like PBWiki, WetPaint, Wikispaces for simple page construction, housing resource collections, collaborative documents, and show-and-tell type activities.
Other Tools
  • Word Processor to develop recitations, summary documents, and outlines.
  • Respondus StudyMate Class server – where instructors and learners can post and share study materials in a web-based collaborative environment.
  • Respondus StudyMate Author to create memory games and flashcards using simple templates.
  • Presentation tools for recitation
  • Digital recorders for explanations and show-and-tell type activities

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This entry was posted on August 22, 2008 by in Instructional Design, Instructional Technology and tagged , , .

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