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Random Thoughts on Instructional Design

Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 4 of 7

Applying (application)

  1956 Taxonomy 2001 Taxonomy 2008 Taxonomy
Defined The ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application to such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding that those under comprehension. Carrying out or using a procedure through executing or implementing. Applying relates and refers to situations where learned material is used through products like models, presentations, interviews and simulations.
Skills Demonstrated Use information; use methods, concepts, theories in new situations, solve problems using required skills or knowledge
Objective Examples Apply concepts and principles to new situations, apply laws and theories to practical situations, solve mathematical problems, construct graphs and charts, demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure. Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been, Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events, write a performance play based on the story, write a summary report of the events, prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events
Possible Products Paper, graphs, charts, demonstrations, presentations, performance Illustration, simulation, sculpture, demonstration, presentation, interview, performance, diary, journal Multimedia presentations, games & educational units, community groups, podcasts, vodcasts, blogs, wikis, computer generated designs


Collaborating using electronic tools for sharing, editing and uploading materials. The tools would include products like Elluminate , Adobe Connect , Wimba , and similar products .   Assessment of collaboration activities would be based on the learners ability to use appropriately the tool to facilitate the discussion.


Editing – With most media’s, editing is a process or a procedure that the editor Employs I illustration.


Hacking – hacking in its simpler forms is applying a simple set of rules to achieve a goal or objective.


Playing – The increasing emergence of games as a mode of education leads to the inclusion of this term in the list. Students who successfully play or operate a game are showing understanding of process and task and application of skills.


Running and operating – the action of initiating a program. This is operating and manipulating hardware and applications to obtain a basic goal or objective.


Uploading and Sharing – uploading materials to web sites and the sharing of materials via sites like flickr, Yahoo Groups, Google Groups,  etc. This is a simple form of collaboration, a higher order thinking skill. Tools like: word processors, mind mapper , podcast, vodcast, Audacity , digital recorder, and Skype can be used for interviews then uploaded to a project site.


Free Tools
  • Alice 2.0 – free scripting and prototyping environment program for 3D object behavior. (Windows only)
  • Crocodile Clips – constructivist based simulation packages that can be download and integrated into curriculum. Many of their products can be downloaded for free for assessment purposes by registering your school , if integrated into lesson plans a site license will have to be purchased.
  • GIMP – a free image manipulation program that provides tools for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.
  • GoAnimate online animation tool that allows users to create comic based movies that they can share with social networks, and embed into blog, wikis, and web pages.   
  • Google Docs   – tools allows for the creation and sharing of   online documents, presentations, and spreadsheets   
  • Google Sketchup – software that can be used to create, modify, and share 3D models.
  • Inkscape – “An Open Source vector graphics editor, with capabilities similar to Illustrator, CorelDraw, or Xara X.”
  • JING – package allows learners to capture images, record videos of what they see on the screen and upload and share their products through email, IMs, or blogs.  
  • Star Office – With slide templates, custom fonts, combined audio, video, animations, and special effects users can create multimedia presentations (pc only)
  • Mmorpg – online multi player strategy games.
  • Platform Studio – easy to use studio that assists users in designing 2D platform games. Software must be download to a local computer.  
  • Scratch programming language created by MIT that makes it easy to create interactive stories, animations, games, music and art.
  • Tuxpaint  – free children’s drawing program. Runs on Mac, Windows, and Linux platforms.
  • Zoho Show – product allows learners to develop, collaborate, and share presentations online. “Zoho Show’s pre-built themes, clipart and shapes coupled with features like drag-and-drop makes it an easy application to use. “ Learners can then take the presentations that they develop and imbed the products into blogs or web pages.
  • 3D Adventure Studioan editor for creating adventure games in style of Gabriel Knight 3 (Windows only)


Other Tools
  • Comic creation tools – Features include Page and Panel layouts, (including styles for a real comic-strip look), streamlined image selection, cropping and placement, authentic speech balloons (enhanced by a built-in professional quality comic lettering font), captions and special effects text   – (free 30 day trial)
  • Learning by Simulations – this site is a repository for math, physics, computer science, and chemistry simulations.
  • Real Lives –collection of educational simulations dedicated to enhancing the users understanding and compassion in a global society.
  • Play2Train – “a virtual training space in SecondLife designed to support Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), Simple Triage Rapid Transportation (START), Risk Communication and Incident Command System (ICS) Training.”
  • Snag-It – easy to use screen capture and editing tool (~ $50 per copy – 30 day trial version can be downloaded for free).  
  • Presentation Packages
  • Digital recorder
  • Video and sound tools
  • Presentation tools to develop Jeopardy and Who Want to be a Millionaire type games

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This entry was posted on August 29, 2008 by in Instructional Design, Instructional Technology and tagged , , .

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