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Random Thoughts on Instructional Design

Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 5 of 7

Analyzing (analysis)


1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy


The ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principle involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.

Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Take concepts apart, break them down, analyze structure, recognize assumptions and poor logic, evaluate relevancy

Skills Demonstrated

Seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of components

Objective Examples

Recognize unstated assumptions, recognizes logical fallacies in reasoning, distinguish between facts and inferences, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyze the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing) Recognize unstated assumptions, recognizes logical fallacies in reasoning, distinguish between facts and inferences, evaluate the relevancy of data, analyze the organizational structure of a work (art, music, writing)

Distinguish relevant from irrelevant parts or important from unimportant parts of presented material; determine how elements fit or function within a structure; determine the point of view, bias, values, or intent underlying presented material

Learners will break information into parts/ components to explore, develop, construct and understand relationships.

Possible Products

Survey, abstract, report, graph, checklist, chart

Survey, database, mobile, abstract, report, graph, spreadsheet, checklist, chart, outline

Mashups, chart of electronic resources, mind/concept maps, software/hardware analysis, sharable web-based spreadsheet, interactive charts, online surveys,   theme based social network


Cracking – cracking requires the cracker to understand and operate the application or system being cracked, analyze its strengths and weaknesses and then exploit the findings.


Linking – this is establishing and building links within and outside of documents and web pages.


Mashing – mashups are the integration of several data sources into a single resource. Mashing data currently is a complex process but as more options and sites evolve this will become an increasingly easy and accessible means of analysis. An example of a mashing is the use of cartographic data from Google Maps to add location information to real-estate data, thereby creating a new and distinct web service that was not originally provided by either source.


Reverse-engineering – this is analogous with deconstruction. It is also related to cracking often without the negative implications associated with technique. One way to design this activity is to require learners to develop relationship mind maps: herring or fish bone mind maps, SWOT Analysis, PMI, Venn, or 6 questions.


Free Tools
  • Ballot box – Ballot Box allows you to create a free online poll for your website. Before you can get started, you’ll need to create an account. Then you can create 15 questions for your poll and each question can have 15 answers. Poll appearance are completely customizable with real-time updates and poll results. Poll results can be made private or public and also prevents users from voting twice. You can also create up to 25 polls. If you are conducting a survey, you might want to consider creating a poll with multiple questions.
  •  Blogflux – Blog Flux requires that users create an account on their site before they can create a poll. Once the account is created, they can then create the poll with up to five options. A unique feature is that the voting results are mapped on Google maps. The site has other tools to enhance your blog such as a button or chicklet creator, a link logger, and a page rank checker.
  • Cmap  – tool that assists learners in constructing, navigating, sharing, and criticizing concept maps.
  • Concept Tutor Plus – tool can be used by educators or learners to create single concept learning units.
  • FreeMinda free mind mapping application written in Java. FreeMind is licensed under the GNU General Public License. It provides extensive export capabilities.
  • Gliffy   – lets you create charts and diagrams online, using a library of pre-drawn symbols, and save them as images to embed in documents and web pages. Both the free Basic and premium ($5/month)versions allow users to collaborate in near real time, and Gliffy automatically keeps a copy every time a document is saved, so you can track changes or revert to an earlier version.
  • MindMeister is a web-based mind mapping software that allows an unlimited number of users to collaborate in real time. Import your mind maps from Freemind and MindManager, publish mind maps to your website or blog, or export them as images, PDF or RTF files. Full premium features ($4/month) are free for all account holders for the first 30 days.
  •  Mindomo’s free version is very comparable to that of MindMeister, with the addition of a useful option to keep your mind map private or share it with selected colleagues. The premium version ($6/month) includes a spell check utility, folders, full-screen view, and the ability to export mind maps in MindManager, Microsoft Project and Microsoft Excel formats.
  • Polldady – users can create polls and surveys for websites, blogs and social networking profiles.  
  • Survey monkey – SurveyMonkey is a web-based service that allows you to create online surveys. It is quite intuitive and easy to use. You can either create from scratch or use templates. Participants can go to the site to respond, or you can create a link from your site. You can add logos and banners, change colors and customize in many different ways. Basic subscribers are limited to a total of 10 questions and 100 responses per survey. The basic subscription is free. If you want to go beyond 100 respondents, and up to 1000 and gain access to many more features, there is a cost.  
  • Surveygizmo – Survey Gizmo has an easy-to-use interface. It requires that you create an account on their site before you have access to the tools to create a survey. Once your account is created, you can set up an online survey with over 12 different styles of questions. You can also generate multiple reports when all of your data is inputted.  Finally, the connect-to-website feature is just great, allowing you the copy HTML into your site or just provide a link. I also like that it is free for up to 250 responses per month. After that the pricing goes up to $14/month for 1,000 responses.  
  • Vizu – Polls generated by are delivered via a Flash widget rather than a snippet of JavaScript or HTML code.  Vizu walks you through the steps of creating a poll and gives you total control of the look and feel.  
  • VUEa free, open source concept mapping application written in Java. The application is developed by the Academic Technology group at Tufts University. VUE is licensed under the Educational Community License.

Other Tools
  • Inspiration – can be used to develop and support persuasive speeches (free 30-day trial)  
  • Smart ideas (free 30 day trial)  
  • Social networking tools
  • Word Processor
  • Spreadsheets
  • Email and  discussion boards
  • Clickers
  • MySQL and/or   Access for the development of relational databases
  • Presentation software
  • Web pages
  • Blog entries
  • Wiki pages

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This entry was posted on September 5, 2008 by in Instructional Design, Instructional Technology and tagged , , .

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