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Random Thoughts on Instructional Design

Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 6 of 7

Evaluating (synthesis)


1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy


The ability to put parts together to form a whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information), Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of ne patterns or structures.

Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Set standards, judge using standards, evidence, rubrics, accept or reject on basis of criteria.

Skills Demonstrated

Use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from several areas, predict/draw conclusions

Argue, critique, defend, interpret, judge, measure, select, test, verify

Objective Examples

Write a well organized theme, gives a well organized speech, writes a creative short story, proposes a plan for an experiment, integrates learning from different areas in to a plan for solving a problem, formulates a new scheme for classifying objects (or events, or ideas)

Detect inconsistencies or fallacies within a process or product; detect the appropriateness of a procedure for a given task or problem; conduct a debate about an issue of special interest; prepare a case to present your view about… Justify a decision, solution, answer or course of action by developing/constructing and applying standards and criteria.

Possible Products

Paper, speech, short story, project plan

Debate, discussion panel, report, evaluation, investigation, verdict, conclusion, persuasive speech, self-evaluation

Blog, vlog, wiki, twitter, audio/video conference, new application, film, podcast


Blog/vlog commenting and reflecting – Constructive criticism and reflective practice is often facilitated by the use of blogs and video blogs (vlog).


Moderating – This is high level evaluation, the moderator must be able to evaluate a posting or comment from a variety of perspectives, assessing its worth, value and appropriateness. Tools that can be used for commenting on, and moderating postings are: discussion boards, forums, blog, wiki’s, twitter, threaded discussions, bulletin boards, chat rooms.


Podcasting – podcasting is a creative process involving several different components. A successful podcast must be planned and scripted. It requires care and preparation to record and construct, and requires learners to plan clear and concise messages using a one way communication mechanism.  


Posting – posting comments to blogs, discussion boards, threaded discussions. These are increasingly common elements of students’ daily practice. Good postings like good comments are not simple one line answers rather they structured and constructed to evaluate the topic or concept.


Testing (Alpha and Beta) – Testing of applications, processes and procedures is a key element in the development of any tool. To be effective testers students must have the ability of analyze the purpose of the tool or process, what its correct function should be and what its current function is.



Validating – With the wealth of information available to students combined with the lack of authentication of data, students of today and tomorrow must be able to validate the verity of their information sources. To do this they must be able to analyze and evaluate the data sources and make judgments based on these. Key elements of validating the information is reporting the information source, accessing multiple information sources and information types, creating linkages between the information sources and making decisions on the validity of information based on this process.


Wikis – Allows learners to show understanding by developing content via paraphrasing and authoring material on a related topic in a wiki environment. The authoring aspect of this type of tool shows application as the learner edits the wiki to a suitable standard. Click here to learn more about using wikis in teaching.


Collaborating and networking – Collaboration is an increasing feature of education. In a world increasingly focused on communication, collaboration, leading to collective intelligence is a key aspect. Effective collaboration involves evaluating the strengths and abilities of the participants and evaluating the contribution they make. Networking is a feature of collaboration, contacting and communicating

with relevant person via a network of associates. Some of the techniques that can be utilized to illicit collaborative networking are: panel discussions, group projects, and social networking.  


Free Tool
  • Arcview – “a desktop GIS mapping software that provides geographic data visualization, mapping, management, and analysis capabilities along with the ability to create and edit data.”
  • Blogger – Google resource that allow the user to set up an unlimited number of hosted blogs for free. The resources is easy to use and has a built in tutorials.
  • Bluepulse – mobile social networking tool that works on most internet-enabled phones.
  • is a simple, Flash-based brainstorming tool that produces mind maps you can embed in a web page. I found it most useful in making a quick diagram to show hierarchical relationships in a graphical format — as in an organizational chart or a family tree.
  • Classroom blogmiester – free blogging tool developed specifically for classroom use. 
  • Click Caster – easy to use web based publishing platform.
  • Collectives – provides private and public group sites for sharing and staying connected.   (If you want custom branding and permission controls on the site it will cost $9.00 per month.)  
  • Edublogs – free blog hosting service based on WordPress. Site is dedicated to offering blogs for faculty and students. Site contains a number of teaching techniques for integrating blogs into the learning environment, and they offer classroom and campus wide solutions. 
  • Flickr – online photo and video sharing tool that allows users to share collections, create location maps, photo books, cards and calendars .
  • FreeMinda free mind mapping application written in Java. FreeMind is licensed under the GNU General Public License. It provides extensive export capabilities.
  • Gcast – create and download podcasts .  
  • Gliffy   – lets you create charts and diagrams online, using a library of pre-drawn symbols, and save them as images to embed in documents and web pages. Both the free Basic and premium ($5/month)versions allow users to collaborate in near real time, and Gliffy automatically keeps a copy every time a document is saved, so you can track changes or revert to an earlier version.
  • Google Earth – Learners can “view satellite imagery, maps, terrain, 3D buildings and even explore galaxies in the Sky. You can explore rich geographical content, save your toured places and share with others.”
  • Google Groups – learners can join active groups, or set up free public or private groups where they can chat, exchange emails and share resources.
  • Miaplaza – site allows for private communities and allows text, photos, and videos to be shared through discussion forums, chats, and email.
  • MindMeister is a web-based mind mapping software that allows an unlimited number of users to collaborate in real time. Import your mind maps from Freemind and MindManager, publish mind maps to your website or blog, or export them as images, PDF or RTF files. Full premium features ($4/month) are free for all account holders for the first 30 days.
  • Mindomo’s free version is very comparable to that of MindMeister, with the addition of a useful option to keep your mind map private or share it with selected colleagues. The premium version ($6/month) includes a spell check utility, folders, full-screen view, and the ability to export mind maps in MindManager, Microsoft Project and Microsoft Excel formats.
  • Ning – users with no programming experience   can create custom social websites.     
  • Odeo Studio – create audio with the online recorder or import digital audio to create podcasts.
  • PBWiki – ad Free hosted wiki tool for educators.
  • podOmatic – create, find and share podcasts from this site  
  • Skype – can be used for group video and phone conferencing and online office hours.
  • Twitter – resource provides a tool for quick exchanges between users.
  • VUEa free, open source concept mapping application written in Java. The application is developed by the Academic Technology group at Tufts University. VUE is licensed under the Educational Community License.
  • Window Live Messenger – can be downloaded and used for can synchronous debates across distances.
  • Wetpaint – wiki website that is easy to use and designed for collaboration – can add youTube videos, polls, and more.
  • Wikispaces – simple wiki tool that is very easy to setup and manage.
  • WordPress – the software for this bolg tool can be downloaded for free and hosted on your own server or hosting service at, or you can free hosted blog at
  • Yahoo Groups – learners can join existing groups, create new groups, share resources, set up group calendars and chat.
  • Yahoo Instant Messenger   – can be downloaded and used for can synchronous debates across distances.
  • Three other web-based mind mapping applications you might want to try are the surprisingly powerful WiseMapping, the new Mind42 – just out of beta testing, which currently places no limitations on numbers of users or saved mind maps) and Thinkature, which combines collaborative mind mapping with voice chat.
Other Tools
  • Elgg – software allows of the creation on social networks – product is based on an open source platform and must be hosted on your site.
  • Inspiration – can be used to develop and support persuasive speeches (free 30-day trial)  
  • Smart ideas (free 30 day trial)  
  • live classrooms Elluminate , Adobe Connect , Wimba, etc
  • Digital cameras to record presentations, plays, peer facilitation activities.
  • Word processors t develop scripts
  • Digital recorders to present speeches for review and critique
  • Wiki features built into learning/course management systems
  • Web pages
  • Podcasting features built into learning/course management systems
  • Digital audio recorder
  • Video and phone conferencing

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This entry was posted on September 12, 2008 by in Instructional Design, Instructional Technology and tagged , , .

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