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Random Thoughts on Instructional Design

Modifying Bloom’s Taxonomy to Meet 21st Century Pedagogies – Part 7 of 7

Creating (Evaluation)


1956 Taxonomy

2001 Taxonomy

2008 Taxonomy


Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, and article) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given to them.

Creating is concerned with putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Learners will put things together; bring together various parts; plan experiments, put information together in new and creative ways.

Skills Demonstrated

Compare and discriminate between ideas; assess value of theories, presentations; make choices based on reasoned argument; verify value of evidence

Synthesize, arrange, blend, create, deduce, devise, organize, plan, present



Judge the logical consistency of written material, judge the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data, judge the value of a work (art, music, writing) by the use of internal criteria, judge the value of a work   by use of external standards of excellence.

Develop alternatives or hypotheses based on selected criteria; devise a procedure of accomplishing a selected task; design a tool to perform a specific task; create a product, give it a name and plan a marketing campaign within selected parameters; write a TV show, play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about…

Possible Products

Paper, story, project, plan, song, painting

Film, story, project, plan, new game, song, media product, advertisement, painting, radio show, video, new product development

Multimedia applications, macros, electronic games, films, videocasting, podcasting, directing/producing products, digital storytelling, wikis, blogs, model design, electronic painting & drawing


Directing and producing – to directing or producing a product, performance or production is a highly creative process. It requires the student to have vision, understand the components and meld these into a coherent product.


Filming, animating, videocasting, podcasting, mixing and remixing – these relate to the increasing trend to using and availability of multimedia and multimedia editing tools. Students frequently capture, create, mix and remix content to produce unique products.


Podcasting or vodcasting  can also be used for guided asynchronous debates, and iCam and web meeting tool for debates across distances. Mind mapping tools can be used to define arguments and possible rebuttals. Chatrooms and Instant Messaging (IM) services can be enable synchronous debates across distances. Discussion Boards and email can be used for guided asynchronous debates. Persuasive speeches can be presented across distances with mind map tools used in presentation mode (samples of argument maps can be found at


Programming – Whether it is creating their own applications, programming macros or developing games or multimedia applications within structured environments, learners are routinely creating their own programs to suit their needs and goals. Why not harness that creativity and have learners design a functional project that addressed course objectives and outcomes.


Publishing – whether via the web or from home computers, publishing in text, media or digital formats are increasing. Again this requires a huge overview of not only the content being published, but the process and product. Related to this concept are also


Video blogging – the production of video blogs, blogging and also wiking – creating, adding to and modify content in wikis.


Creating or building Mash ups and Digital Storytelling would also fit in this domain.


Free Tools
  • AjaxWrite – Web based word processing program.
  • Alice 2.0 – free scripting and prototyping environment program for 3D object behavior. Runs on Windows.
  • Animoto – web application that automatically generates professionally produced videos using their own technology and motion design. Each video is a fully customized orchestration of user-selected images and music. Produced on a widescreen format   
  • Audacity –  for podcasting, recording narration in presentations.
  • Blender –   an open source, cross platform suite of tools for 3D creation.    
  • Blogger – Google resource that allow the user to set up an unlimited number of hosted blogs for free. The resources is easy to use and has a built in tutorials.
  • C-Map (open source)  
  • Classroom blogmiester – free blogging tool developed specifically for classroom use.  
  • Click Caster – web based podcast publishing tool.
  • Concept Tutor Plus – tool can be used by educators or learners to create single concept learning units.
  • Dvolver online movie making tool. Movies that learners create can be saved on their server or sent to others.  
  •  Gamemaker – written to make it easier for people to design and make their own computer games.
  • Edublogs – free blog hosting service based on WordPress. Site is dedicated to offering blogs for faculty and students. Site contains a number of teaching techniques for integrating blogs into the learning environment, and they offer classroom and campus wide solutions.  
  • Eyespot – Eyespot provides video editing and sharing software that can be easily embedded in any website.
  •  Finale notepad – free music notation   software.
  • Freemind (open source)   
  • Ganttproject for Gantt charts and PERT Charts
  • Gcast – web based site that allows the user to record and mix podcasts
  • GIMP – a free image manipulation program that provides tools for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.
  • Historic tale construction kit –flash based application that allows learners to create a comic book type story using medieval backdrops and images. Once created the projects can be emailed or added to an online gallery.
  • JING – package allows learners to capture images, record videos of what they see on the screen and upload and share their products through email, IMs, or blogs. 
  • Jump cut – provides a way to upload, edit, and share videos and photos for free.  
  • Maya3d PLE – personal learning edition based on the Autodesk Maya 8.5 software. This version is restricted to non-commercial applications.  
  • Microsoft Movie Maker – Microsoft PC product that comes with XP service pack 2. If you need to download another copy go to   
  • Microsoft NetMeeting for XP, or Windows Meeting   Space for Vista users.   Both products are built into their respective versions of Windows.
  • ODEOStudio – web based site that allows the user to record audio or import audio for podcast mixing and distribution.
  • Open Office – free and open office productivity tools.
  •  Openproj for Gantt, Pert and critical pathways – the product is a desktop replacement for Microsoft Project; it has equivalent functionality, a similar user interface and even opens existing MSProject files.
  • Photostory by Microsoft – easy to use free software download from Microsoft. Works on PCs only.
  • Picnik  – free server based photo editing program.  
  • Pinnacle – video community site dedicated to editing. They operate a free space on the web where students can share their   videos.
  • podOmatic – site that allows for the creation and sharing of podcasts.
  • RPG Maker XP –product allows users to create role-playing games without any special knowledge or training.
  • Scratch programming language created by MIT that makes it easy to create interactive stories, animations, games, music and art.
  • Sketchup – Google 3D software tool, software, training, and tutorialsare avaliable on the site. The base product is free, pro version can be downloaded for a trial period.  
  • Skype – product provides free video calls and instant messaging.
  • Star Office – With slide templates, custom fonts, combined audio, video, animations, and special effects users can create multimedia presentations (pc only)
  • Tuxpaint  – free children’s drawing program. Runs on Mac, Windows, and Linux platforms.
  • WordPress – the software for this blog tool can be downloaded for free and hosted on your own server or hosting service at , or you can free hosted blog at
  • Yahoo Instant Messenger – product runs on Mac & PC, and can be downloaded at
  • Zoho – product provides a number of productivity and collaboration tool applications.
Other Tools
  • Adobe Premier elements  – Users can create flash videos that can be shared online or through mobile devices  
  • Apple iLife 08 – For MACs only. Comes packaged with newer MACs. Can be purchased separately.
  • Comic creation tools – Features include Page and Panel layouts, (including styles for a real comic-strip look), streamlined image selection, cropping and placement, authentic speech balloons (enhanced by a built-in professional quality comic lettering font), captions and special effects text   – (free 30 day trial)  
  • Flash – Adobe product – high learning curve and a bit expensive.
  • GIMP – is a GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a freely distributed piece of software for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It works on many operating systems, in many languages.
  • Inspiration – graphlic organizer taht allows learners to visualize, think, and organize learning activities. (free 30-day trial)
  • – free photo editing software.
  • Pinnacle Studio – video capture and transfer software.
  • Quicktime Pro– Apple product that runs on the PC and MAC (~$30.00)
  • RealPlayer Plus – product runs on PC and MAC (`$40.00).
  • Smart ideas – visual learning software that assists learners in analyzing and understanding complex ideas. (free 30 day trial)  
  • Voicethread – “A VoiceThread is an online media album that can hold essentially any type of media (images, documents and videos) and allows people to make comments in 5 different ways – using voice (with a microphone or telephone), text, audio file, or video (with a webcam) – and share them with anyone they wish.  The company provides a limited free version and fee based professional version (~$60.00 a year) – read the pricing page for details.     
  • PowerPoint
Tutorials and Samples



Anderson, L.W., and D. Krathwohl (Eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: a Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Longman, New York.


Blooms Revised Taxonomy. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from  Kurwongbah State School website


Carneson, J., Delpierre,   G. Masters, K. (1996). Designing Multiple Choice Questions. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from University of Cape Town website


Churches A, 2007, Edorigami, blooms taxonomy and digital approaches


Cruz, E. (2003). Bloom’s revised taxonomy. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from


Flat Classroom Project 2007


Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom’s taxonomy: Original and revised.. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved June 20, 2008 from


Leaman, R. (2008). Top 12 Mind Mapping Tools for Web or Desktop. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from Wild Apricot’s non-profit technology blog


Martin, J. (2001). Bloom’s learning domains. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved June 20, 2008, from


Models – Course Development. Retrieved July 29, 2008, from   Oregon State University,   PDT Course Development Extended Campus website


Oz-TeacherNet. (2001). oz-TeacherNet: Teachers helping teachers: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Retrieved June 20, 2008 from


Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Retrieved August 6, 2008, from Wikipedia

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This entry was posted on September 19, 2008 by in Instructional Design, Instructional Technology and tagged , , .

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