Random Thoughts on Instructional Design
Concept maps are drawings or diagrams showing the mental connections that students make between a major concept the instructor focuses on and other concepts they have learned.
This technique provides an observable and assessable record of the students’ conceptual schemata — the patterns of associations they make in relation to a given focal concept. Concept Maps allow the instructor to discover the web or relationships that students bring to the task at hand — the students’ starting points. This assessment technique also helps the instructor assess the degree of “fit” between the students’ understanding of relevant conceptual relations and the instructor’s map and/or course objectives. With such information in hand, the instructor can go on to assess changes ans growth in the students’ conceptual understandings that result from instruction.
By literally drawing the connections they make among concepts, students gain more control over their connection making. The Concept Map allows them to scrutinize their conceptual networks, compare their maps with those of peers and experts, and make explicit changes.
The Concept Teaching instructional strategy involves the learning of specific concepts, the nature of concepts, and the development of logical reasoning and critical thinking. When designing units they may be deductive (rule to example) or inductive (example to rule).
Concept teaching should proceed through four primary phases:
While students are likely to have some trouble identifying levels of association, they may have even more difficulty identifying the types of relationships among concepts. By going over a parallel example, you can clarify exactly what is expected of the student.
This technique is useful in any course that requires conceptual learning. In courses with a high theoretical content, Concept Maps provide insights into the connections students are making among theories ans concepts. At the same time, Concept Maps can be used to assess the connections students make between theories or concepts and information. In courses where students must learn large numbers of facts and principles, Concept Maps can help faculty see how and how well students are organizing those details into correct and memorable conceptual networks.
Before beginning instruction on a given concept or theory, instructors can use Concept Maps to discover what preconceptions ans prior knowledge structures students bring to the task. This information can help instructors make decisions about when ans how to introduce a new topic — as well as discover misconceptions that may cause later difficulties. During and after a unit, they can use Concept Maps to assess changes in the students’ conceptual representations. An ideal use of this technique is to employ it before, during, and after units on critical concepts.